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Citation Guide for Archivum Ottomanicum

General information 

Articles accepted in English, Turkish, French, German

Microsoft Office Word (.docx).

Fonts: Times New Roman


Citation guide

English and Turkish titles are capitalised.

In repeated citations of the same work: always the first words.



One author

  1. Caroline Finkel, Osman’s Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire 1300–1923. New York, 2005, 166–169.
  2. Finkel, Osman's Dream, 154.

Two or three authors

  1. Geoffrey C. Ward – Ken Burns (or: Geoffrey C. Ward, Lucas Radcliff, and Ken Burns), The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York, 2007, 52.
  1. Ward – Burns, The War, 59–61.

For four or more authors in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”)

  1. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s. Bloomington, 1960, 52.
  1. Barnes et al., Plastics, 52.

Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author

  1. Richmond Lattimore (tr.), The Iliad of Homer. Chicago, 1951, 91–92.
  1. Lattimore, The Iliad, 24.

Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author

  1. İbrahim Peçevi, Tarih. Ahmet Özbek (çev.). İstanbul, 1976, 242–255.
  1. Peçevi, Tarih, 33.

Chapter or other part of a book

  1. Teréz Oborni, ‘Between Vienna and Constantinople: Notes on the Legal Status of the Principality of Transylvania’, in Gábor Kármán and Lovro Kunčević (eds.), The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. (The Ottoman Empire and its Heritage. Politics, Society and Economy. Ed. by Suraiya Faroqhi, Halil İnalcik, and Boğaç Ergene, Vol. 53). Leiden, Boston, 2013, 71.
  1. Oborni, ‘Between Vienna’, 81–82.

Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)

  1. Quintus Tullius Cicero, ‘Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship’, in Walter Emil Kaegi – Peter White (eds.), Rome: Late Republic and Principate. (University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization. Ed. by John Boyer – Julius Kirshner, Vol. 2). Chicago, 1986, 35.
  1. Cicero, ‘Canvassing for the Consulship’, 35.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

  1. James Rieger, Introduction to Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Chicago, 1982, xx–xxi.
  1. Rieger, Introduction, xxxiii.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if you think it important. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Citation variations:

1a. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice. New York, 2007, Kindle edition.

1b. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner (eds.), The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago, 1987, accessed February 28, 2010,

2a. Austen, Pride and Prejudice.

2b. Kurland – Lerner (eds.), Founder’s Constitution, chap. 10, doc. 19.


Journal article

Article in a print journal

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any, otherwise indicate the page range for the whole article.

  1. Gábor Ágoston, ‘Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, 1450–1800’, Journal of World History 25:1 (2014) 122–123.
  1. Ágoston, ‘Firearms’, 88–89.

Article in an online journal

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL.


  1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, ‘Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network’, American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009) 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.
  1. Kossinets and Watts, ‘Origins of Homophily’, 439.

Book review

  1. John Brown, review of A History of the Ottoman Empire 1300–1923, by Henry Smith, New Historical Review 3:1 (2014) 23–24.
  1. Brown, review of A History, 25.

Book review with a special title

  1. David Kamp, ‘Deconstructing Dinner’, review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan, New York Times, April 23, 2006.
  1. Kamp, ‘Deconstructing Dinner’.

Thesis or dissertation

  1. Mihwa Choi, Contesting Imaginaries in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty. PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008.
  1. Choi, Contesting Imaginaries.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

  1. Rachel Adelman, ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition’ (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009).
  1. Adelman, ‘Such Stuff as Dreams’.



A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note (“As of February 11, the Historical Journal listed on its website…”). A more formal citation may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

  1. ‘Google Privacy Policy’ last modified July 27, 2012,
  1. ‘Symbols, Virtues, Representation. The Early Modern Town Hall of Kolozsvár as Medium of Display for Municipial Government’, The Hungarian Historical Review, accessed February 11, 2013,
  1. ‘Google Privacy Policy’.
  1. ‘Symbols, Virtues, Representation’.

Latin abbreviations:

For referring to the same page use ibid.

  1. Finkel, Osman’s Dream, 154.
  1. Ibid.

Ibidem can also refer to a different page:

  1. Finkel, Osman’s Dream, 154.
  1. Ibid., 198.